Description of Film Post-Production by bobby bose

Description of Film Post-Production by bobby bose

In film making, post-production jobs refer to activities that take place after the movie has been shot. At this point, the director must shape thousands of hours of footage into a logically sequenced movie with sound effects, music, title graphics and all of the other elements moviegoers expect. Post-production crew members learn their craft at film schools or through apprenticeships. First jobs are often without pay, but offer valuable contacts and work experience.

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 Film Editor

It’s the editor’s job to help the director make sense of the thousands of hours of footage shot on location. Scenes are almost always shot out of sequence, so the story must be edited to fit the director’s idea of chronology. Decisions must be made as to which of each scene’s multiple takes and camera angles will be used, and what must be scrapped. The editor completes a rough cut, which is basically the film’s first draft edit, but much more work will be done. In the past, film was physically cut and spliced, which is how actors and scenes could end up “on the cutting room floor.” But today most editors digitize the footage and use movie editing software such as Avid and Final Cut Pro.

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Sound Editors

Sound editors are responsible for all audio that must be added to a film. The music editor selects the music and edits it into the footage. This can also mean adding temporary music when the film is still in post-production. The automatic dialogue replacement (ADR) recordist works with the film’s actors to replace unusable dialogue. No matter how sensitive or well-placed the microphones are during shooting, some dialogue ends up garbled; or the scene is shot from such a distance that microphones prove useless. In other cases, “looping” is used to replace certain words with milder dialogue when edited for television. The foley artist works with the sound effects editor to create effects as mundane as the slamming of doors or as inventive as the snarl of an alien. All sound editors work under the direction of the supervising sound editor.

Music Composer

One of the final steps in production is the scoring of the film. The composer receives a rough cut and writes original music that fits the plot, each scene’s mood and the director’s intentions. John Williams’ score for the Star Wars saga is a prime example of a music composer adding an important dimension to film production.

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Post-Production Supervisor

The post-production supervisor acts as a liaison between the director and the various post-production crews. In some cases, the post-production supervisor might also help the director select staff. This job also involves being the primary contact with the film lab and other vendors during the later stages of film production.

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The Future of Indian Immigration

The Future of Indian Immigration


Globalization, which helps businesses expand into new international markets, is eroding nation’s virtual borders through the Internet and blurring its geographic borders as the global mobility of resources and people is on the rise. The increased movement of people into and from India is shaping India’s immigration and visa requirements. Before we can imagine what the future of Indian immigration will be, it is necessary to understand India’s background with regard to immigration and emigration.

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History of Immigration

India has historically been a land of plenty and immigration has been driven by economic opportunities. Over the years, India has attracted several invaders that remained in India as “immigrants.” For instance, around 1500 BC, a group of people called Aryans from the Russian steppes, invaded the Indian subcontinent, and stayed on to dominate the native Dravidian people.

Emigration from India

India went through phases of emigration under the British Rule. This trend continued in India which adopted socialistic policies that supported controlled economic growth. Under the British Rule, several Indians migrated to countries in the East and West Indies, Mauritius and to African countries as indentured labourers and as trading entrepreneurs, and to Australia as convicts (taken by the British). These emigrants stayed on to establish successful lives in the countries where they initially moved. Seeing this trend, more and more Indians voluntarily left their country in search of better opportunities overseas. In recent years, migration has been of primarily three types, family unification, professionals moving for career or business opportunities to the United States, the United Kingdom, China, Australia and Canada labourers and entrepreneurs moving to the Middle Eastern booming economies.

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Indian Non-Immigrant Visas

The entry and movement of foreign nationals in India are regulated by several statutes, rules and regulations, with specific restrictions on the activities they can undertake in India. Most foreign nationals require visas with the exception of certain persons of Indian origin and visitors from Nepal and Bhutan, who enjoy significant freedom of travel into India.

Immigration and Commerce

The explosion of globalization, the Internet, technology and the progressive liberalization of the Indian economy have all contributed to increased travel to India. Information Technology (IT) and IT enabled services (ITES) have seen prolific growth of business, attracting venture capitalists and businessmen to India. India is considered as one of the prime countries in which the outsourcing industry that provides ITES is booming. A number of Business Process Outsourcing (BPO) facilities, faced with the lack of an employable workforce have hired foreign nationals especially from East Europe. In addition, as Indian BPO’s, and recently emerging Knowledge Process Outsourcing (KPO) and Legal Process Outsourcing (LPO) units seek to provide services to non-English speaking jurisdictions the need to higher multilingual professionals has arisen. Businesses in these sectors also have high level managers and professionals to introduce, among other things internationally accepted practices, assistance, knowledge transfer and trained local staff. The demand is partially met through recruitment portals on the Internet.

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Immigration and Foreign Students

The difference in the number of students going abroad to study compared to the number of foreign students coming to study in India is staggering. For example, more than 32,000 student visas for Indian nationals are expected to be issued in India for the full 2007 year as against 24,600 in 2006.” The number of Indian students going to the UK increased from less than 4000 in 1999 to about 19000 in 2006, and Indian students going to Australia have risen from 500 in early 1990s to nearly 30,000 in 2006-07. In addition there a few hundred Indian students going to study at universities in countries like Norway, Denmark, Sweden, Switzerland, Germany, Singapore and Russia.

Immigration and Real Estate

Present Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) policy has a direct and significant effect on Immigration. FDI has seen significant increases through the Foreign Investment Promotion Board (FIPB) and the automatic route, requiring post remittance reporting to the Reserve Bank of India. The Indian Government in the pursuit of liberalizing the economy allows FDI in several sectors, and progressively includes more sectors. Currently, investment in the real estate sector is permitted through direct investments and indirect investments in real estate mutual funds. Foreign nationals or entities are prohibited from investing in plantations and agricultural land, but may invest in the development of projects pertaining to townships, residential projects, retail malls, commercial office projects, information technology parks, hotels and leisure resorts.

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New UK immigration rule to cover Indians : Immigration Solutions Mumbai

New UK immigration rule to cover Indians : Immigration Solutions Mumbai

London: Indian citizens with permission to settle in the UK permanently will need to apply for a biometric residence permit (BRP) as part of changes in immigration rules intended to make it harder for non-European Union (EU) nationals to work illegally and abuse the benefit system.

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Many Indian citizens who migrated to the UK years ago and gained the right to settle here permanently did not opt for UK citizenship and retained their Indian citizenship.

Such individuals will be covered in the latest changes announced today.

A BRP is a card which holds an immigrant’s biographic details (name, date and place of birth); and ‘biometric information’ (fingerprints and facial image).

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It also shows immigration status and entitlements while in the UK.

Most categories of immigrants are required to apply and obtain BRPs.

Immigration Minister Damian Green has now extended the requirement to include refugees and those with right to live in the UK permanently (called ‘indefinite leave to remain’).

The widening of BRP requirements to almost all categories of immigrants is intended to tackle immigration abuse by proving a person’s right to work or access services in the UK, official sources said, adding that the number of foreign nationals issued with a BRP will double to 400,000 a year.

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Since the BRP holds a person’s fingerprints and photograph on a secure chip, it enables a “simple and quick check” about an immigrant’s work and benefits entitlements.

There have been several instances of immigrants who do not have the right to work in the UK being arrested.

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Immigration To Australia : Australian Immigration | Visa Application Process

Immigration To Australia : Australian Immigration | Visa Application Process

If you are considering applying for an Australian visa, it’s important to understand what Australian visas are, how a valid application is made, and how Australian visa applications are processed.

While a general overview of the Australian visa system is helpful, each Australian visa has its own specific set of criteria, guidelines and processes. Prospective migrants to Australia should therefore consult an experienced immigration lawyer to determine the specific requirements of their particular visa class as it relates to their circumstances.

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Legal definition of a visa

Section 5 of the Migration Act 1958 (the Act) provides a definition of ‘visa’ as it is used and applied in Australian immigration law. The Act defines a visa as a ‘permission to travel to, enter and/or remain in Australia.’

A valid Australian visa will specify how long the holder is permitted to remain in Australia under the conditions of their particular visa. It may allow the holder to remain in Australia for a specified period of time under the holder’s specified status, or it may allow the holder to remain indefinitely.

Criteria for an Australian visa

The Migration Act and Regulations determine and define the requirements or criteria an applicant must meet in order to qualify for an Australian visa of a particular class.

The Regulations state that the criteria which must be met in order for an applicant to obtain an Australian visa are set out in Schedule 2 of the Regulations. For particular Australian visa classes, Schedule 2 may at times refer to other criteria in other Schedules. For some visa classes, there may also be relevant criteria outside these schedules that must to be met in order to obtain a visa in that class.

General requirements for an Australian visa

Section 65 of the Act sets out the general requirements to be met for any Australian visa to be granted. These requirements specify that any applicant for an Australian visa must:

·         meet any ‘other criteria’ indicated by either the Act or the Regulations. This includes meeting any relevant criteria set out in Schedule 2 of the Regulations. Other criteria might include a requirement that the application does not exceed any ‘caps’ placed on that visa class by the Minister for Immigration and Citizenship.

·         pay any relevant visa application charge (VAC). This includes any second installment VAC that is payable in relation to a visa application.

·         meet the health criteria. These are set out in Schedule 2 of the Regulations and indicate which of the criteria must be satisfied for each particular visa class.

·         meet the requirements of section 500A (refusal or cancellation of temporary safe-haven visas) and 501 (general powers to refuse on the basis of character).

·         meet the requirements outlined in section 40 of the Act relating to the location of the applicant at the time the visa application is granted (for example, whether an applicant must be inside or outside Australia at the time of grant of the visa).

·         ensure that no other Australian Commonwealth law prevents the visa being applied for from being legally granted.

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Valid Australian visa applications

The Migration Act states that in order for the Department of Immigration to consider an application for an Australian visa, it must be a valid application. The Department is unable to consider any invalid applications. Any visa application that is valid must be considered by the Department even where it is obvious the applicant does not meet the eligibility requirements of that particular visa class. Consideration of the application must continue until either the application is withdrawn, the Act or Regulations suspend further consideration (for example, if caps placed on that visa class have been reached) or until a lawful decision is made either to grant or refuse the application.

A decision that an application for an Australian visa is invalid is not a decision to refuse that application. Thus, a decision by the Department that an application is invalid can only be appealed in an Australian court by way of judicial review, not in a merits review tribunal.

An application for an Australian visa is considered ‘valid’ if:

·         the visa class being applied for is clearly specified

·         the application has been lodged in the appropriate place or office indicated by Schedule 1 of the Regulations (some Australian visa classes require applications to be lodged at a specific place or by particular means such as pre-paid post or online)

·         the visa application is filed on the approved form, and that form has been completed according to the instructions supplied on it including providing the applicant’s current residential address

·         the relevant Visa Application Charge has been paid in full

·         any other eligibility requirements for an application for that visa class set out in Schedule 1 of the Regulations have been met

·         the application meets any specific criteria or circumstances detailed in the Regulations for that particular visa class

·         the applicant for an Australian visa has provided one (or more) ‘personal identifiers’ if they are required to do so

·         if an applicant is in Australia at the time of application, all other criteria specified in the Regulations have been satisfied.

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Preparing a valid application for an Australian visa


Schedule 1 of the Regulations indicate which completed forms must be lodged by the applicant in order to make a valid application for each particular visa class. If the application does not include these forms, then the application is invalid and will not be processed by the Department.

Accuracy of information

All application forms for an Australian visa must be completed in English, and English translations of any supporting documentation submitted along with the application must be provided. Where a visa application form has been completed on behalf of the applicant by another person, the content of the application should be carefully explained to the applicant before they sign it.

All of the information supplied on any application form for an Australian visa will become part of the applicant and the sponsor’s official immigration record, so it is very important that all answers are correct and accurate. If the Department determines that the answers on a visa application are misleading or false, it may refuse or cancel the visa. Providing false or misleading information on a visa application form may also result in the applicant encountering difficulties if they try to sponsor family members to Australian in the future. 

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Immigration Law in India : Immigration Solution Mumbai India Visas India Visas

 India Visas

Indian immigration law requires all foreign nationals to apply for an Indian visa in order to enter the country.

All candidates who wish to relocate to India for any length of time, whether for a short visit or to immigrate to India on a permanent basis will need to apply for an Indian visa to do so.

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Types of Visa for India

Indian Tourist Visas :-

An Indian Tourist visa is usually granted for up to six months. Holders of this type of travel visa, or visit visa as they are often known, may not work during their stay in India and cannot extend their stay.

India also offers a transit visa, which permits applicants to transfer through India for a period of up to fifteen days en route to another, final destination.

Indian Business Visas :-

An Indian business visa can be valid for between three months and five years and requires a letter from a sponsoring Indian company to be submitted along with an introductory letter from the employer in the applicant’s country of residence.

Business visas can be granted as a single or multiple entry variant and are designed to allow applicants to travel to India in order to pursue business activities, excluding employment, such as attending meetings and business conferences.

Indian Work Permit :-

In India, work permits, or Indian employment visas as they are sometimes known, may be issued to skilled professionals or to applicants filling a specific role.

The requirements for working permits are loosely defined and remain a subjective area of Indian visa services, however in order to live and work in India all candidates must secure one.

Although work permits may be obtained by either the employer or employee, the ‘usual’ route is normally employer led.

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Indian Student Visa :-

Indian Student visas can be issued either for the duration of the applicant’s course or for a maximum of five years. Study visa applications require an unconditional offer from a recognized Indian educational institute.

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Indian Permanent Residency Options

Persons of Indian Origin (PIO Card) :-

The PIO scheme applies to people of Indian origin, defined through their birth or residency, or that of their parents or grandparents and offers a long-term Indian visa solution.

PIO cards are granted for a period of fifteen years, and allow their holders to enjoy visa free travel in and out of India.

Overseas Citizenship of India (OCI) :-

Overseas citizenship of India allows Persons of Indian Origin who have obtained citizenship of another nation, to acquire long-term leave to remain in India.

Although often referred to as Indian ‘Dual Citizenship’ it is important to note that India itself does not support dual citizenship and that OCI, whilst offering many benefits, is not a full grant of citizenship.

If, after 5 years, an OCI holder wishes to apply for full Indian citizenship, they must renounce their citizenship of any other country.

OCI cards are granted for life and offer many of the benefits of a PIO card with the advantage that holders do not have to register their presence in India, however long their stay may be. However, unlike a PIO card, the spouse of an OCI applicant is not automatically eligible.

PIO cards allow their holders to freely engage in work or study in India and after the minimum seven-year residency requirement the option to apply for Indian citizenship is available.

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Immigration Visa : Immigration Solution Mumbai

Immigration Visa : Immigration Solution Mumbai

There are two types of visa categories in the United States:

1.  Nonimmigrant Visas (
 2.  Immigrant Visas (

The United States Immigration and Visa System (…) can be a complex issue and sometimes hard to understand. On this page we will explain the differences between various immigration visas available. 

Depending on the purpose of your visit, you as a person will either be classified as an immigrantornonimmigrant. For example, a person visiting the United States on holiday is a nonimmigrant, but a child being adopted will arrive the United States on an immigrant visa. The important difference between the two visas are related to the intention for visiting the Unites States; nonimmigrant visas are intended for Temporary Visits and immigrant visas are for individuals relocating permanently to the United States.

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Types of United States Visas

Within each of the two visa classifications, there are many different types of visas available. 

“Nonimmigrant” Immigration Visas:

B-1 Temporary visitor for Business
B-2 Temporary visitor for Pleasure (Tourist Visa)
E-1 Treaty Trader, spouse and children
E-2 Treaty Investor, spouse and children
F-1 Student Visa
H-1B Work Visa for Specialty Occupations (including fashion models)
J-1 Visas for exchange visitors
K-1 Fiancée and Fiancé Immigration Visa
O-1 Extraordinary ability in Sciences, Arts, Education, Business, or Athletics
P-1 Individual or team athletes
R-1 Religious workers
TN Trade visas for Citizens of Canada and Mexico

Note: Citizens for certain countries do not need an immigration visa at all. This program is calledVisa Waiver. It enables foreign nationals, mostly from developed countries, to visit the United States for up to 90-day visa-free.

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Immigrant Visas:

Immediate Relatives Immigration Visa
Special Immigrants
Family-sponsored Immigration Visa
Employer-sponsored Immigration Visa
Marriage to a Foreign National
Diversity Immigrant Visa Program, commonly know as the Green Card Lottery
Employment Immigrant Visas

Where to Get an Immigration Visa

Visas are always issued abroad at a U.S. Consulate or Embassy. It is not possible to get a visa once in the United States. The visa application process consists of different application forms and immigration fees that must be paid. Citizens with an electronic passport from a country that participates in the Visa Waiver Program do not need to obtain a visa in advance for temporary visits. However, citizens of countries that are required to obtain a visa in advance must do so in order to be allowed entry into the United States. Many U.S. embassies and consulates now also require an appointment to be made in advance. It is recommended to schedule your appointment early as there may several weeks of waiting. 

Will there always be an Immigrant Visa Available?
Certain immigrant visas have numerical limits. This there will be no more visas available until the following year once the quota is reached. The Diversity Visa Program (a.k.a. Green Card Lottery) always reaches the quota. The same does the H-1B visas for skilled professionals. However, most family-based visa, such as immigrant visa for spouses of United States citizens.. 

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Will an Immigrant Visa Guarantee Entry in the United States?
No. An immigrant visa is not guaranteeing you an entry to the United States. Upon entry you will be asked questions by an immigration officer from the Department of Homeland Security. He or she will inspect your documents and immigration visa. Any irregularity with the immigration visa or supporting documents may lead to denial of entry and Deportation.

What Happens if I Overstay My Visa?
Do not overstay your immigration visa! All visas have an expiry date. However, note that the time you are authorized to stay in the United States may be different from the expiry date on your visa. For example, a B-2 Tourist Visa may be valid for up to 10 years. However, upon entry to the United States you will only be allowed to stay for up to 6 months. You visa will still be valid, but the authorized time you are allowed to stay is limited. The advantage is that if you want to enter the U.S. the following year (assuming your visa is still valid), you do not have to apply for a visa again before entering the United States. Note that your passport must also be valid for at least 6 months upon entry to the United States.

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Editing Film Using Traditional Methods Bobby Bose File Editor

The traditional process of editing film has changed little over the years. Although the equipment has improved dramatically, the steps are basically the same. Following is a simplified workflow outlining the film editing process.

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1. Stage 1: Shooting the Film and Recording the Sound

Audio is always recorded separately from the film, on a separate sound recorder. This is known asshooting dual system sound.While shooting the film, you need to include a way to synchronize the sound to the picture. The most common method is to use a clapper board (also called a slate or sticks) at the beginning of each take. There are a number of other methods you can use, but the general idea is to have a single cue that is both audible and visible (you can see what caused the noise).

2. Stage 2: Developing the Film

The developed film is known as the original camera negative. This negative will eventually be conformed to create the final movie and must be handled with extreme care to avoid scratching or contaminating it. Normally, the negative is used to create a workprint (film positive) and then put aside until the negative is conformed.

3. Stage 3: Creating the Workprint

The workprint is created from the original camera negative and gives you a copy of the raw film footage to use for the editing process. Because workprints are film positives, they can be projected and used as dailies, letting you view what has been shot.

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4. Stage 4: Creating Audio Scratch Tracks

An audio scratch track is similar to the films workprintits a copy of the production audio to use while editing. Depending on the type of mechanical film editor you intend to use, you will often create an audio scratch track on magnetic film. Magnetic film, known as single stripethree stripemag stock, andfullcoat, uses perforations like regular film but is coated with magnetic material. Once the magnetic film is synced with the film on the editor, both the audio scratch track and the workprint are run in tandem, maintaining their sync during editing.

5. Stage 5: Editing the Workprint

This is the point when you make decisions regarding which parts of the film footage you want to use and how you want it laid out. Editing the workprint involves physically cutting and splicing at each edit point. Changing your mind about the exact placement of a cut or trying an alternative edit is time-consuming and tends to be hard on the film.

6. Stage 6: Conforming the Negative

The negative cutter uses the edited workprint as a guide to make edits to the original camera negative. This process is called conforming. Because there is only one negative, it is crucial that no mistakes are made at this point. As opposed to the cutting and splicing methods used when working with the workprint, the cutting and splicing methods used for conforming the negative destroy frames on each end of the edit.

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